Yuanmingyuan (Garden of Perfect Splendor)
Yuanmingyuan originated as a garden presented
by Emperor Kangxi (reigning 1662-1723) to his fourth son,
the future Emperor Yongzheng (reigning 1723-1735). Research
reveals that a small-scale construction started in 1707, the
46th year of Emperor Kangxi's reign. By 1719, in addition
to the attractions around the Houhu (Back Lake), the garden
had expanded to include Gengzhixuan (Tilling and Weaving Hall)
in the north and Shenliu Dushutang (Willow Grove Study) on
the west bank of the Fuhai (Sea of Happiness) Lake in the
east. Twelve scenic spots were granted names by its owner.
Large-scale expansion and construction followed during the
reign of Emperors Yongzheng and Qianlong.
In 1744, Emperor Qianlong picked out 40 sights in the garden
and composed poems in praise of them. Small expansions and
renovations continued in the next three decades, and ten more
sights were added to the landscape. Altogether, more than
600 halls, pavilions and towers were built. Many of them were
imitations of famous gardens in China, especially those south
of the Ynagtze River, such as the ten sights in the West Lake
scenic area in Hangzhou, the Anlan (Tranquil Waves) Garden
in Haining, Zhejiang Province, and the Jichang Garden in Wuxi,
Yuanmingyuan functioned as both an office and a residence
for the emperor, a place that best symbolized the principle
of "emperors administrating state affairs with perseverance
and continuity." On the flanks of the main Palace Gate were
the offices of the ministries; inside was the major hall for
the emperor to meet his ministers and administrate daily affairs.
The back part held living quarters, ancestral temples, Buddhist
towers and many other intriguing sights.
Covering an area of 210 hectares with 40 percent water surfaces,
the garden was comprised of ten small gardens, the Fuhai in
the east as the largest lake in the garden, and its surrounding
isles. Almost square-shaped with each side around 500 to 600
meters long, the lake was the venue of the Dragon Boat Festival
(the fifth day of the fifth lunar month), the lamp Sailing
Festival (the fifteenth day of the seventh lunar month) and
other folk activities in the garden's days of glory.
Yet plundering and burning by the Anglo-French Joint Forces
in 1860 and the continual destruction within the next century
reduced the Fuhai Lake to rice paddies and reed marshes. The
first phase of developing the ruins of Yuanmingyuan Park was
focused on reestablishing the Fuhai Lake scenic area. It took
about seven months to dig up the lake, build bridges and roads,
clean up the ruins and plant grass and trees. On June 29,
1985, the lake and its surrounding attractions were open for
the first time to visitors.